The location of a fruit-growing operation is just as important as the types planted in determining its success. In reality, the combination of diversity and location places a cap on the amount of productivity and profit that can be realized even with the best management. The two components of a site that define its suitability for a fruit-growing company in most developed fruit regions are microclimatic characteristics (climate at plant height, as impacted by tiny changes in soil, soil covering, and elevation) and soil conditions. Transport to market must sometimes be considered (especially with perishable fruits). Click Here for more information.
Citrus in Florida, like peach trees in New Zealand and apple trees in the south of England, suffers from local conditions that expose it to unusual frost hazards. Artificial frost protection is sometimes employed in places and sites where temperatures during the season may drop only a few degrees below freezing. This is performed by burning open flame (petroleum bricks, logs, etc.) or heating metal items with oil, gas, propane, electricity, and so on (stones or stacks that radiate heat). Spraying water on plants (e.g., strawberries) is another approach that can be used as long as the temperature is below freezing.
Most fruit trees require substantial rooting to a depth of three feet (one meter) or more for maximum output. Shallow, weak root systems that do not efficiently extract water and nutrients from the soil may come from heavy subsoil or other factors that cause poor internal drainage. The accumulation of saline soils in a subsurface layer in semi-arid and arid environments can hinder fruit tree roots, induce aberrant foliar symptoms, and diminish yields. Tiling and surface ditching help to prevent damp spots in otherwise good sites by reducing water accumulation in poorly drained subsoils. In saline soils, special irrigation practices and periodic leaching may help to mitigate the harshest salt effects.
A site is cleaned, levelled (if necessary), and farmed once it has been chosen. Then, as needed, drainage, irrigation, and road systems are installed. The locations of the plant or row positions are decided by the contour terraces and rivers built-in rolling or sloping terrain where contour planting is needed to control erosion and conserve moisture. Nematode or other pest populations in old fields necessitate fumigation before planting.
System of planting and spacing
The most suitable planting plan for a fruit and nut-growing operation is determined by growth, flowering habits, and light requirements on the one hand, and management concerns on the other. There is a trend toward using dwarfing stocks, growth control agents, or tighter planting and training, or all of them, to achieve the maximum yields and highest operational efficiency on a unit of ground.
Low-growing crops like strawberries and pineapple are frequently grown in multi-row beds or less formal matted rows. The tangled rows of strawberries can include 200,000 or more plants in an acre.
The spacing of grapevines on a trellis row and trees placed in hedgerows both pose similar challenges. Vine distances of eight to nine feet (2.4 to 2.7 meters; 600 per acre are typically used to achieve maximum vineyard yield. Hedgerows 14 feet apart or closer are the norms for peach trees and spur-type apple strains, with rows 18 to 20 feet (5.4 to 6 meters) apart.
The planting design must take into account the unique needs of those species and types that require insect cross-pollination. Apple, pear, plum, and sweet cherry orchards all have this problem.